Intelligent energy systems
ICT, partly based on new developments in mathematics and computer science, is needed to realise the future energy system as this will be more complex than the current one, both technically and organisationally. Advanced ICT combined with smart networks is required to get centralised and decentralised sections of the energy system and its users working effectively and efficiently together with the variations over various timescales (from very short to hours, days and seasons) and to guarantee reliability, availability and affordability. The collection and use of big data that is relevant for generation, storage, distribution and consumption is crucial in this. Furthermore, ICT can stimulate users to make sustainable use of energy and can be used to achieve energy savings. Critical design factors are public acceptance, ethical aspects, autonomy, robustness, privacy and cyber security.